by Tsioliaridou A., Liaskos C., Dedu E., Ioannidis S.
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This work belongs to the Nanonetworking research track.

Stateless Linear-path Routing for 3D Nanonetworks [[[Tsioliaridou2015SLR]]]

Journal version: "Packet Routing in 3D Nanonetworks: A Lightweight, Linear-path Scheme" [[[Tsioliaridou2017comnet]]]

Abstract: Efficient data routing is a critical enabler of future nanonetworking applications. Such nano-routing schemes must account for highly lossy wireless channel conditions, non-unique identifiers and limited processing capabilities at the nanonodes comprising the network. The present study proposes a novel addressing and routing scheme fit for 3D nanonetworks. Initially, a geo-addressing process is applied within the network. Subsequently, it is shown that every node can deduce whether it is located on the linear path connecting a communicating node-pair. This deduction is made using integer calculations, node-local information and in a stateless manner, minimizing the computational and storage overhead of the proposed scheme. Most importantly, the nodes can regulate the width of the linear path, thusly trading energy efficiency (redundant transmissions) for increased path diversity. This trait can enable future adaptive routing schemes. Extensive evaluation via simulations highlights the advantages of the novel scheme over related approaches. 

In a nutshell

The present paper introduced Stateless Linear Routing (SLR), a routing scheme for 3D nanonetworks. SLR is designed for the active-metamaterial application scenario [[[Liaskos2015design]]].

Emphasis is placed on low-complexity and, consequently, low manufacturing cost per nanonode.

Thus, SLR assumes:

  • No memory for routing tables per node.
  • "Weak" CPU per node, supporting integer opeerations only (+,-,<,>,=).

SLR addresses each node (gray spheres below) by its distances, (i.e., Virtual Coordinates) from a selected set of three anchor points:

SLR seeks to transfer a packet from a sender P1 to a receiver P2 using successive retransmissions (multi-hop) over a line:

SLR treats Virtual Coordinates (anchor distances) as Cartesian. I.e., it employs direct mapping and no conversion.

This results into curvilinearity:



Susequently, each node uses the cartesian 3D line segment formula to check whether he is placed on the path connecting the sender to the receiver.

This is accomplished by checking for sign-change in the formula, for a region around his coordinates.

The size of the region is tunable, and can be used for defining "thicker" paths.

Thicker paths contain more potential retransmitters, yielding higher path redundancy.

SLR is more energy-efficient than volume-bounding routing approaches [[[Tsioliaridou2015corona]]].  


  • Multi-hop nano-networks have interesting applications (active metamaterials [[[Liaskos2015design]]]).
  • Multi-hop propagation adds another networking restriction, i.e., low manufacturing cost per node.
    • This is expressed by assuming weak nano-node CPUs (integer-processing only) and limited RAM.
  • With these restrictions, the proposed Stateless, Linear Routing (SLR) is an effective solution for:
    • node addressing,
    • packet routing with tunable path redundancy. 
  • Key-enabler of SLR is the use of curvilinear coordinates.


This work was partially supported by the EU Horizon 2020 VirtuWind project (Grant no. EU 671648).

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